Class C network address has only 8 bits for defining hosts :
A CIDR address of/19 is 255.255.224.0. This is a Class B address, so that is only 3 subnet bits, but it provides 13 host bits, or 8 subnets, each with 8,190 hosts.
If a switch has three computersconnected to it, with no VLANs present , one broadcast and three collision domains are created.
If a DHCP Conflict is detected, either by the server sending a ping and getting response or by a host using a gratuitous ARP (arp'ing for its own IP address and seeing if a host responds), then the server will hold that address and not use it again until it is fixed by an administrator.
OSI layer 1 defines the standards for cabling and connectors.
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