Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to provide IP information to hosts on your network. DHCP can provide a lot of information, but the most common is Ip address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS information.
The default configuration setting is 0x2102, which tells the router to load the IOS from flash and the configuration from NVRAM. 0x2142 tells the router to bypass the configuration in NVRAM so that you can perform password recovery.
If you have a server or other devices connected into your switch that you're totally sure won't create a switching loop if STP is disabled, you can use something called portfast on these ports. Using it means the port won't spend the usual 50 seconds to come up while STP is converging.
A VPN allows or describes the creation of private networks across the Internet, enabling privacy and tunneling of non-TCP/IP protocols. A VPN can be set up across any type of link.
Routersoperate no higher than layer 3 of the OSI model.
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