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Cell Signalling and Transduction problems


  • 1. What is the name of the protein signaling molecule that alters glucose uptake, and where would its receptors be located?

  • Options
  • A. Insulin; many different cell types that use glucose for fuel
  • B. Insulin; beta cells of the pancreas
  • C. PDGF; the blood
  • D. NGF; the nerves involved in simple reflexes
  • Discuss
  • 2. If a disease of the blood vessels caused the endothelial cells of the vessel to die, what effect would that have on the cellular activities associated with vasodilation?

  • Options
  • A. Nitric oxide would no longer be produced
  • B. Smooth muscle cells could not be made to relax
  • C. It would be more difficult to increase blood flow and reduce blood pressure
  • D. All of the above
  • Discuss
  • 3. Which of the following is true about a hydrophilic signaling molecule?

  • Options
  • A. Its receptor is located in the cytosol of the target cell
  • B. It might trigger a signal cascade that causes some effect in a cell
  • C. Since it can enter the cell, it directly affects some specific cell process
  • D. It is a steroid
  • Discuss
  • 4. Why is it that inhaling nitric oxide reduces blood pressure only in the lung tissue and not elsewhere in the body*?

  • Options
  • A. Because other body tissues use a different signaling molecule
  • B. Because nitric oxide cannot cross cell membranes and enter the blood
  • C. Because nitric oxide breaks down quickly and thus cannot travel far
  • D. None of the above
  • Discuss
  • 5. SH2 domains specifically bind to

  • Options
  • A. phosphorylated serine residues
  • B. phosphorylated tyrosine residues
  • C. GDP
  • D. Ca2+
  • Discuss
  • 6. Which of the following is a second messenger?

  • Options
  • A. lnositol 1,4,5-triphosphate
  • B. Diacyl glycerol
  • C. Phospholipase C
  • D. Both (a) and (b)
  • Discuss
  • 7. The hormone or ligand can be considered as

  • Options
  • A. first messenger
  • B. second messenger
  • C. both (a) and (b)
  • D. none of these
  • Discuss
  • 8. Cell signaling can be classified into

  • Options
  • A. three distinct types based on the distance over which the signaling molecules act
  • B. two distinct types based on the distance over which the signaling molecules act
  • C. three distinct types based on the signaling molecules
  • D. none of the above
  • Discuss
  • 9. The major second messengers are

  • Options
  • A. cAMP
  • B. cGMP
  • C. DAG
  • D. All of these
  • Discuss
  • 10. Simple nerve reflexes use signaling molecules called

  • Options
  • A. neurotransmitters
  • B. nitric oxides
  • C. G proteins
  • D. proteases
  • Discuss

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